Learning outcome–based policy of (lifelong) education dr. Klara Skubic Ermenc
Summary: The paper explores the meaning of the learning outcome concept and its role in modern educational policies. The first hypothesis is that the learning outcome concept is a political construct without a clear definition. However, it can be understood within the context of modern regulation of educational systems, which place the concern for quality and transparent learning achievements of learner groups at the centre of their policies. Furthermore, the author argues that, despite a global shift towards the learning outcome approach, we can distinguish between two types of this approach. The first one is typical of countries who continue to manage their educational systems in a rather centralised manner, whilst the second is typical of countries with decentralised systems. National and transnational frameworks of qualifications, which have been very much in demand for the past few years, contribute their share to the popularisation of the learning outcome approach. Therefore, the discussion includes an analysis of the core functions and characteristics of modern frameworks of qualifications. The paper ends with a discussion on the relation between the learning outcome concept and systems for recognition of non-formal and informal learning, whilst suggesting certain dimensions in the complex issue of recognition of knowledge and skills obtained outside of the formal educational system.