The Effect of Preschool on the Reading Literacy of 15-Year-Olds: A Secondary Analysis of PISA 2009 Ljubica Marjanovic Umek, Katja Grgic and Ajda Pfifer Summary:
Summary: Empirical research findings, especially those obtained in the last 20 years, show positive short- and long-term effects of a high-quality preschool on children’s cognitive and social abilities and academic achievements. Because the results of the 2009 PISA international comparative study also show that in the majority of countries 15-year-olds who attended preschool for more than 1 year score higher in reading literacy than their peers who did not attend preschool, the effect of the length of children’s preschool attendance and the effects of certain other structural indicators of preschool quality on the reading achievements of 15-year-olds were analyzed in greater detail in a secondary analysis of Slovenia and selected countries. The findings of these types of analyses, which are usually supported by findings of more specific studies, make it possible to seek weak points in the education system that may lessen its equity and effectiveness. In the analysis of data included in the secondary study, criticism is directed toward some weaknesses of data coverage in the 2009 PISA study, especially the answers provided retroactively to the “Student Questionnaire” by 15-year-olds and the inclusion of data from various databases comprising data on the same topic, but from various time periods.