Development of school systems and pedagogy in Bosnia and Herzegovina dr. Snježana Šušnjara
Summary: The intensive development of the educational system in Bosnia and Herzegovina started immediately after the war. This was dictated by the needs of economic development, industrialization of the country and by the transfer of the labor force from the agricultural to industrial sector, but also by the changes in the whole of the social and political structure and “necessity to engage the whole working class and other citizens to be successfully involved in the development of the socialistic society.” (Hromadžić 1982, pp. 4–5) There was a constant gap between a sudden increase of natality in the afterwar period, the number of children who needed to attend schools and the amount of students, schools space and the lack of teachers. The so called old school dominated in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was based on verbalism, intellectualism and it was not practical at all. After 1945, Bosnia and Herzegovina accepted the Marxist theory and its decisive input towards education. A school declaratively became national, accessible, obligatory and free for all. Functioning in this way, education became a weapon in the politicians’ hands who dreamed of creating a new socialistic individual. An influence of soviet pedagogy was evident. This pedagogy attempted to exclusively impose its principles as the only worthy, as it was the case in all the countries of „national democracy“ or socialistic countries created after the Second World War. Nevertheless, pedagogy in Bosnia and Herzegovini was a Marxist one, but it attempted to be focused on pupil and to put him/her, at least declaratively as the subject of the educational process.