The idea of inclusion – between various concepts of justice and ethical theories dr. Irena Lesar
Summary: In the article, school is presented as a social space marked by the constant meeting and interweaving of individual, sociocultural, economic, and political characteristics of the individual and society. Since schooling has become a standard social practice in the majority of societies, solutions are currently being sought as to how to enable equal opportunity in the process of schooling, i.e., how to prevent the influence of conditions beyond an individual's control (gender, socioeconomic status, culture, handicap) on academic success. In seeking solutions, it is necessary to take into account the various hierarchies in society (economic, status, political) that are a crucial source of inequality among pupils, and to design schools not only according to the concept of distributive justice, as is the case in Slovenia today, but to also take into account the concept of recognition and representation, and therefore to consider a holistic, integrative approach. Experience shows that defining the field of schooling in a way that conforms only to the concept of justice is insufficient; in order to create the conditions required to realize the idea of inclusion, it is necessary to stress key values. This means considering—on the basis of various ethical theories (the ethics of justice, the ethics of care, community ethics)—which values provide more or less support for achieving the idea of inclusion. In the everyday meeting of pupils and teachers, we must not overlook the influence of the so-called interpersonal space, which can either contribute to the empowerment and progress of pupils or can fail to do so, depending on the perceptions of teachers regarding the expectations, capabilities, and goals of educating (marginalized) pupils.