How children are manipulated and how they participate: Preschool teachers’ and preschool teacher assistants’ perspectives Sonja Rutar and Tina Štemberger
Summary: Study of the frequency and forms of participatory and non-participatory practice (manipulation) in preschools is key to learning about and becoming aware of the existing educational process. Lack of awareness of manipulation of children prevents their emancipation in the process of education. This paper addresses the occurrence of different degrees and forms of participation and non-participation in children’s education. The research study included preschool teachers and preschool teacher assistants from Slovenian public preschools. The findings suggest that neither extreme non-participatory practice nor extreme participatory practice occurs frequently. Future research should focus more on participation by proxy, an intermediary stage between non-participatory practice and children’s participation that is difficult to identify in practice.