Changes in Teacher Education in Italy: A Survey from Italian Unification to Today Simonetta Polenghi
Summary: This paper focuses on recent trends in teacher education in Italy, taking into account elementary and preschool (3–10 years old) teacher education as well as secondary school (11–18 years old) education and highlighting the changes and continuities in the history of Italian teacher education. Teacher training in Italy reached a turning point with Law no. 341 (1990), which established a new comprehensive system of university education for schoolteachers of all levels. In 1998 a four-year degree course for future elementary and preschool teachers was implemented. As for the initial training of junior and senior schoolteachers in 1999, they were required to attend the School of Specialisation for a two-year period. In 2010 a five-year numerus clausus degree course was implemented for pre- and primary schoolteachers, using a different curriculum and providing a teaching qualification. Secondary school teaching qualification, on the other hand, became critical after the two years course Scuola di Specializzazione all’insegnamento was abolished. The implementation of specialised teacher training courses for disabled students and inclusive teaching is also reviewed.